Evaluation of tongue posture & dimensions in relation to skeletal Class I and Class II patterns- A cephalometric study

Original Article

Author Details : Sumit Chhabra, Puja Khanna*, Preeti Munjal, Sunny Mittal, Nishtha Arora

Volume : 7, Issue : 4, Year : 2021

Article Page : 276-281


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Introduction: Association of tongue posture with dental and facial skeletal pattern have been suggested in past. This study was undertaken to assess tongue posture and dimensions in Class I and Class II Dentoskeletal patterns to determine whether any correlation exists between tongue posture and skeletal pattern of an individual.
Materials and Methods: Cephalograms of 150 individuals (aged 18-23 years), taken in Natural Head Position (NHP) and tongue at rest were divided into three groups i.e. Group 1 – Class I Normal occlusion, Group 2 – Class II Division 1 Normodivergent and Group 3 – Class II Division 1 Hypodivergent, consisting of 50 samples each. To ensure the rest position of tongue, patient was asked to relax for 30 seconds after coating the tongue with barium sulphate in midline and then to swallow, and the X-ray was taken at the end of swallowing. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to sex. Groups were constituted according to the Frankfort mandibular plane angle (FMA) angle. The subjects who had skeletal Class II pattern due to mandibular retrusion and not due to maxillary prognathism were only included in the study group. Statistical analysis was done using the software SPSS version 21.0. The statistical tests used were unpaired t-test and One-way ANOVA test with post-hoc bonferroni test. The p-value was considered significant if less than 0.05.
Results: The dorsum of the tongue was higher at back and lower in front in Class II Division 1 Hypodivergent group as compared to Class I Normal occlusion group (P<.05). Tongue height and tongue length were significantly reduced in Class II Division 1 Normodivergent and Class II Division 1 Hypodivergent malocclusion groups when compared to Class I control group (P<.05).
Conclusion: The study supports the existence of a relationship between posture & dimensions of the tongue with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns.

Keywords: Cephalometry, Skeletal pattern, Mandibular retrusion, Tongue posture.

How to cite : Chhabra S, Khanna P, Munjal P, Mittal S, Arora N, Evaluation of tongue posture & dimensions in relation to skeletal Class I and Class II patterns- A cephalometric study. Int J Oral Health Dent 2021;7(4):276-281

Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and Int J Oral Health Dent. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (creativecommons.org)

Article History

Received : 19-06-2021

Accepted : 13-09-2021

Available online : 28-12-2021

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